Critical Tourism

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Spekulativni turizam

U području suvremene umjetnosti, putovanje je prihvaćen uvjet profesionalne prakse, gdje umjetnici, kustosi, teoretičari, kritičari i obični entuzijasti često putuju blizu i daleko kako bi svjedočili i sudjelovali u umjetničkim događanjima, poput raznih i brojnih međunarodnih umjetničkih bijenala, akademskih susreta i medijskih festivala.  Ova povijest slijedi raniju zapadnu tradiciju, koja uključuje kolonijalne bilježitelje “Novih svjetova” i rane moderniste na praznicima u primorskoj Francuskoj.  Iz ove povijesti izniču promjenjive forme koje postaju više ili manje kritički angažirane, više ili manje autorefleksivne.  1936, Fortune Magazine je naručio od američkog fotografa Walkera Evansa i pisca Jamesa Ageea da naprave portret života siromašnih farmera u ruralnoj Alabami.  Njihova suradnja je postala široko priznatom knjigom “Hajdemo sad hvaliti slavne ljude” (“Let Us Now Praise Famous Men”), koja je u ono vrijeme bila zapažena zbog svojeg formalnog eksperimentiranja i izazovne kombinacije teksta i slike koji su prkosili olakim, indeksnim čitanjima.
S obzirom na vještine prikazivanja koje historijski čuvaju umjetnici, dokumentiranje uvjeta i života udaljenih mjesta je nastavilo biti njihov upotrebljiv aspekt, i ranija djela poput “Slavnih ljudi” ostaju referentna točka za mobilne umjetnike zainteresirane za prikazivanje Drugih.  Međutim, političke ekonomije pokretnosti koje su Agee i Evans ostavili politički neprovidnima postale su točka refleksije za mnoge suvremene kulturne proizvođače koji rade između granica umjetnosti, dokumentarne i političke akcije.
Ti “nagoni da se bude drugdje”, kakve opisuju teoretičari turizma Mimi Sheller i John Urry, zaista su veoma politične želje, i imaju goleme političke posljedice.  Kako oni kažu, “turizam se tiče i relacijskih mobiliziranja sjećanja i izvedbi, o-rođenih i o-rašenih tijela, emocija i atmosfera.”  Jedan praktični odgovor na ove stvarnosti mogao bi se nazvati “Kritički turizam”, i može ga se naći u djelu Špekulanata (The Speculators – Daniel Tucker i Dave Pabellon).  U njihovim “Bilješkama za narodni atlas Zagreba”, imperijalna oruđa sociološkog istraživanja i kartografskog prikazivanja bivaju preokrenuta naglavačke i predana, mada možda ne potpuno, svojim povijesnim subjektima.  Kao turisti, oni pomažu u kolaborativnoj proizvodnji znanja, ne za imperijalnu publiku “kod kuće”, nego za asortiman kako stranih, tako i lokalnih grupacija, koje nastoje turizam pretvoriti u nešto što je i kritično i generativno.  Kako ulazimo u novu eru natjecateljske mobilnosti, gdje kapital i predmeti redovito prelaze granice koje istovremeno ograničavaju kretanje ljudi – često primjenom istih tehnologija – takvu se inverziju, čak i u naizgled jednostavnoj formi slijepe karte, ne može olako shvatiti.

Nepotpuna bibliografija za Kritički turizam

– Rostek, Thomas (urednik),  At the Intersection: Cultural Studies and Rhetorical Studies, The Guilford Press, 1999.
– Highmore, Ben, Everyday Life and Cultural Theory, Routledge, 2002.
– Lippard,Lucy,  On the Beaten Track: Tourism, Art and Place, The New Press, 1999.
– Kwon, Miwon, “The Wrong Place,” Art Journal, Spring 2000, pp.33-43.
– Foster, Hal,  “The Artist as Ethnographer,” Global Visions: Towards a New Internationalism in the Visual Arts, Jean Fisher, ur., Kala Press, 1994.
– Owens, Craig  “Improper Names,” Beyond Recognition: Representation, Power and Culture, University of California, 1992.
– Watson, Scott,  “Discovering the Defeatured Landscape,” Vancouver Anthology: The Institutional Politics of Art, Stan Douglas, ur., Talon Books, 1991.
– Smithson, Robert  “Incidents of Mirror-Travel in the Yucatan (1969),” Robert Smithson: The Collected Writings, Jack Flam, ur., University of California, 1996.
– Rogoff, Irit,  Terra Infirma: Geography’s Visual Culture, Routledge, 2000.
– Sekula, Alan,  “Reading an Archive,” Blasted Allegories, Brian Wallis, ur., The New Museum of Contemporary Art i MIT Press, 1987.
– Kanouse, Sarah,  “Touring the Archive, Archiving the Tour: Image, Text and Experience with the Center for Land Use Interpretation,” Art Journal, Summer 2005, pp. 78-87.
– MacCannell, Dean, The Tourist: A New theory of the Leisure Class, University of California, 1999.
– Rojek, Chris and Urry, John (urednici), Touring Cultures, Routledge, 1997.
– Curry, Michael, Digital Places, Routledge, 1998.
– Copjec, Joan and Sorkin, Michael (urednici), Giving Ground, Verso, 1999.
– Hall, Michael and Page, Stephen (urednici), The Geography of Tourism and Recreation, Routledge, 2002.
– Sheller, Mimi and Curry, John (urednici), Tourism Mobilities, Routledge, 2004.
– Rojek, Chris, Leisure and Culture, St. Martin’s Press, 2000.
– Crouch, David and Jackson, Rhona and Thompson, Felix (urednici), The Media and the Tourist Imagination, Routledge, 2005.
– Gregory, Derek and Urry, John (urednici), Spatial Relations and Spatial Structures, Macmillan Publishers, 1985.
– Hanna, Stephen and Del Casino, Vincent Jr. (urednici), Mapping Tourism, University of Minnesota Press, 2003.
– Jackson, Peter, Maps of Meaning, Unwin Hyman, 1989.
– Universal Experience, Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago/D.A.P, 2005.
– Crang, Mike and Thrift, Nigel (urednici), Thinking Space, Routledge, 2000.
– Cresswell, Tim, Place: a Short Introduction, Blackwell, 2004.
– McKittrick, Katherine and Woods, Clyde (urednici), Black Geographies, South End Press, 2007.
– Ockman, Joan and Frausto, Salomon (urednici), Architourism, Prestel, 2005.

Biografija

Ryan Griffis je povremeni agent za Ured za privremena putovanja, kvazi-fikcijsku turističku agenciju koja istražuje kritički potencijal turizma.  Ured za privremena putovanja se trenutno nalazi u Urbana-Champaignu u državi Illinois.

Speculative Tourism

by Ryan Griffis

In the field of contemporary art, travel is an accepted condition of professional practice, where artists, curators, scholars, critics and just plain enthusiasts often travel near and far to participate and witness staged art events, such as the various and numerous international art biennials, academic conventions and media festivals. This history follows an earlier Western tradition that includes the colonial recorders of “New Worlds” and the early modernists on holiday in seaside France. From this history has sprung changing forms that become more or less critically engaged, more or less self-reflexive. In 1936, American photographer Walker Evans and writer James Agee, were commissioned by Fortune Magazine to create a portrait of the lives of poor farmers in rural Alabama. Their collaboration became the widely acclaimed book “Let Us Now Praise Famous Men,” noted at the time for its formal experimentation and challenging combination of text and image that defied easy, indexical readings.
Given the skills of representation historically kept by artists, documenting the conditions and lives of distant places has continued to be an employable aspect of them, and earlier works like “Famous Men,” remain a point of reference for mobile artists interested in the representation of Others. The political economies of mobility, left politically opaque by Agee and Evans, however, have become a point of reflection for many contemporary cultural producers working in between the confines of art, documentary and political action.
The “urges to be elsewhere” described by tourism scholars Mimi Sheller and John Urry, are indeed very political desires, and have vast political consequences. As they have said, “tourism also concerns the relational mobilizations of memories and performances, gendered and racialized bodies, emotions and atmospheres.” One practical response to these realities could be called “Critical Tourism,” and can be seen in the work of The Speculators (Daniel Tucker and Dave Pabellon). In their “Notes for a People’s Atlas of Zagreb,” the imperial tools of sociological research and cartographic representation are turned on their heads and handed over, though perhaps not completely, to their historical subjects. As tourists, they are aiding in the collaborative production of knowledge, not for an imperial audience “back home” but for an assortment of constituencies both foreign and local attempting to turn tourism into something both critical and generative. As we enter a new era of competitive mobility, where capital and objects regularly cross borders that simultaneously restrict the movement of people – often through the application of the same technologies – such an inversion, even in the seemingly simple form of a blank map, should not be taken lightly.

Bio

Ryan Griffis is a part-time agent for the Temporary Travel Office, a quasi-fictional tourist agency investigating the critical potential of tourism. The Temporary Travel Office is currently based in Urbana-Champaign, Illinois.

incomplete bibliography for Critical Tourism/ Nepotpuna bibliografija za Kritički turizam
Compiled by Ryan Griffis of the Temporary Travel Office

– Rostek, Thomas (urednik),  At the Intersection: Cultural Studies and Rhetorical Studies, The Guilford Press, 1999.
– Highmore, Ben, Everyday Life and Cultural Theory, Routledge, 2002.
– Lippard,Lucy,  On the Beaten Track: Tourism, Art and Place, The New Press, 1999.
– Kwon, Miwon, “The Wrong Place,” Art Journal, Spring 2000, pp.33-43.
– Foster, Hal,  “The Artist as Ethnographer,” Global Visions: Towards a New Internationalism in the Visual Arts, Jean Fisher, ur., Kala Press, 1994.
– Owens, Craig  “Improper Names,” Beyond Recognition: Representation, Power and Culture, University of California, 1992.
– Watson, Scott,  “Discovering the Defeatured Landscape,” Vancouver Anthology: The Institutional Politics of Art, Stan Douglas, ur., Talon Books, 1991.
– Smithson, Robert  “Incidents of Mirror-Travel in the Yucatan (1969),” Robert Smithson: The Collected Writings, Jack Flam, ur., University of California, 1996.
– Rogoff, Irit,  Terra Infirma: Geography’s Visual Culture, Routledge, 2000.
– Sekula, Alan,  “Reading an Archive,” Blasted Allegories, Brian Wallis, ur., The New Museum of Contemporary Art i MIT Press, 1987.
– Kanouse, Sarah,  “Touring the Archive, Archiving the Tour: Image, Text and Experience with the Center for Land Use Interpretation,” Art Journal, Summer 2005, pp. 78-87.
– MacCannell, Dean, The Tourist: A New theory of the Leisure Class, University of California, 1999.
– Rojek, Chris and Urry, John (urednici), Touring Cultures, Routledge, 1997.
– Curry, Michael, Digital Places, Routledge, 1998.
– Copjec, Joan and Sorkin, Michael (urednici), Giving Ground, Verso, 1999.
– Hall, Michael and Page, Stephen (urednici), The Geography of Tourism and Recreation, Routledge, 2002.
– Sheller, Mimi and Curry, John (urednici), Tourism Mobilities, Routledge, 2004.
– Rojek, Chris, Leisure and Culture, St. Martin’s Press, 2000.
– Crouch, David and Jackson, Rhona and Thompson, Felix (urednici), The Media and the Tourist Imagination, Routledge, 2005.
– Gregory, Derek and Urry, John (urednici), Spatial Relations and Spatial Structures, Macmillan Publishers, 1985.
– Hanna, Stephen and Del Casino, Vincent Jr. (urednici), Mapping Tourism, University of Minnesota Press, 2003.
– Jackson, Peter, Maps of Meaning, Unwin Hyman, 1989.
– Universal Experience, Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago/D.A.P, 2005.
– Crang, Mike and Thrift, Nigel (urednici), Thinking Space, Routledge, 2000.
– Cresswell, Tim, Place: a Short Introduction, Blackwell, 2004.
– McKittrick, Katherine and Woods, Clyde (urednici), Black Geographies, South End Press, 2007.
– Ockman, Joan and Frausto, Salomon (urednici), Architourism, Prestel, 2005.

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